RAII Pronounciation

RAII Description

Resource Acquisition Is Initialization or RAII, is a C++ programming technique which binds the life cycle of a resource that must be acquired before use (allocated heap memory, thread of execution, open socket, open file, locked mutex, disk space, database connection—anything that exists in limited supply) to the lifetime of an object.

RAII guarantees that the resource is available to any function that may access the object (resource availability is a class invariant, eliminating redundant runtime tests). It also guarantees that all resources are released when the lifetime of their controlling object ends, in reverse order of acquisition. Likewise, if resource acquisition fails (the constructor exits with an exception), all resources acquired by every fully-constructed member and base subobject are released in reverse order of initialization. This leverages the core language features (object lifetime, scope exit, order of initialization and stack unwinding) to eliminate resource leaks and guarantee exception safety. Another name for this technique is Scope-Bound Resource Management (SBRM), after the basic use case where the lifetime of an RAII object ends due to scope exit.